SOBRAON - From a painting by Jack Spurling illustrated in
                                                  "SAIL:The Romance of the Clipper Ships"


                TO AUSTRALIA

                                                   A LIST OF SHIPS AND 

                               WHERE TO FIND PICTURES OF THEM 

                                I.  SAIL AND
up to the 1880s (scroll down)

                             II. STEAM INCLUDING AUXILIARIES  

                                           - from 1850s to 1914 (click here)

                                  III.  PICTURE GALLERY OF STEAM 

                                                        from 1850s to 1914    GO TO:


                                  IV.  STEAM & MOTOR SHIPS
                                    - from 1918 to the 1970s  GO TO:
                                             http:// www.findboatpics.net.au/


                         RED JACKET in the ice off Cape Horn - From a print by Currier & Ives illustrated  in 
                                                                  "Clipper Ships" (Introduction by Felix Riesenberg)  

                                                       THIS SITE – CONTACT

                         This site has been researched and put together by Roy Fernandez - 
                         an ex-yachtee who knows what it is like to be out on blue water.        
                         As he no longer sails, he likes to research and think about ships 
                         and passages.  Any mistakes or obscurities are his, and for which
                         he apologizes and would be grateful for correction.  He regards 
                         this website as an unfinished work which he hopes to expand.  He  
                         would  like to add more German and other non-British sailing                
                         vessels (with their picture references) which brought settlers to  
                         Australia.  His own Fernandez ancestors arrived in Melbourne on      
                         the White Star clipper 'Red Jacket' in 1855.  He can be contacted 
                         by email below.

                         CONTACT (click on)roy@findboatpics.com


                                             CUTTY SARK - From a painting by Jack Spurling illustrated in 
                                                         "SAIL:The Romance of the Clipper Ships"


                        I. SAIL - Up to the 1880s

                             INDEX  - ABBREVIATIONS SOURCES (INTERNET)   



                                  TO A  SHIPPING
                                                 WHERE  THEY
                A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P&Q  R  S  

                                           U&V  W  XY&Z

                             (CLICK ON  FIRST LETTER OF VESSEL'S NAME)



                         INDEX OF SHIPPING LINES (AND KEY)
                            FOR SHIP AND PICTURE SOURCES

                  ON KEY
                  AW -
Aberdeen White Star (Geo Thompson & Co)
- Blackball Line (James Baines & Co, Liverpool)
                  BC - Blue Cross Line (T & W Smith)
                  BW- Blackwall Line (R & H Green, London)
                  CA - A & J H Carmichael & Co
                  CL - Cambrian Line  (Williams & Roberts, later T Williams & Co)
                  CO - J.P. Corry & Co.
                  CR - J J  Craig
                  DC - Dundee Clipper Line (D Bruce & Co)
                  DD - Duncan Dunbar, London
                  DM - Devitt & Moore
- J Duthie, Sons & Co, Aberdeen
                  EL - Elder Line (A L Elder & Co, London)
                  GL - Glasgow Shipping Co, later General Shipping Co (Aitken , Lilburn) 
                  HI - Hine Brothers
                  LA - Thomas Law & Co
                  MA - G Marshall
                  MG - Alexander McGregor & Co
                  NI - Alex Nicol & Co
                  NZ - New Zealand Shipping Co
                  OR - Orient Line (Anderson, Anderson & Co. London)
                  RO - D Rose & Co
                  SC - Scottish Line (W H Ross & Co, later g Windram & Co)
                  SG - G Smith & Co
                  SO - Joseph Somes (later Merchant Shipping Co)
                  SM - Some Small Companies
                  SP -  James Sproat & Co Ltd
                  SS - Shaw, Savill & Albion, London
                  TA - Trinder Anderson & Co
                  TM - Thames & Mersey Line (J Heap & Sons)                  
                  TW  -
Welsh County Line (W.Thomas, Sons & Co. Ltd.)
                  WG - Money Wigram & Sons, London
                  WK - T B Walker, London
                  WL - John Willis & Son
                  WS - White Star (Pilkington  & Wilson, Liverpool)
                  WT - Watson Bros
                  WV - Waverly Line (Williamson, Milligan & Co)


                  CT - Convict Transports
                  HS - Sailing Vessels from Hamburg ( J C Godeffroy and
R M Sloman)
                  WF - Wool Fleet, 1874 - 1890 (from Basil Lubbock's "The Colonial
                  WW - Some First Arrivals at New Zealand ports 1840 -1902 (from
                             Sir Henry Brett's "White Wings")


                                   PERICLES - From a painting by Jack Spurling illustrated in  
                                                 "SAIL:The Romance of  the Clipper Ships"



                The details of each Sailng Vessel (where available) are set out          
                in the following order:

                1. Hull Construction: w -Wood;  c - Composite (metal frame,      
                    wood planks);  i - Iron;  st - Steel. 

                2. Number of Masts: 
1, 2, 3 or more

                         s - Ship (yards with square rig on at least 3 masts and on 
                              all masts if more than 3) 

                         bk - Barque or Bark (in a 3 or more masted vessel, yards 
                                 with square rig on all but the last or mizzen mast)                             

                         bkn - Barquentine or Barkentine (in a 3 or more masted 
                                   vessel yards with square rig on the foremast only)                           

                         bg - Brig (2 masted vessel with yards and square rig on            
                                 both masts)                                                   

                         bgn - Brigantine -   (2 masted vessel with square rig on  
                                  foremast only)

            4. Tonnage: A volume measurement of the enclosed space on a vessel
                        - one ton  representing 100 cubic feet.  The method for calculating 
                       tonnage has changed with time and the evolution of ship design.      
                      The calculation before 1835 is described as 'old measurement'                
                       (or o.m.) and after that date as 'new measurement' (or n.m.).  
                       The method calculation was further refined in the 1850s with a 
                       distinction between 'gross tons' (the total capacity) and 'net tons' 
                       (after non-commercially usable space, e.g., machinery and crew      
                       quarters' space is deducted).  The tonnages given in ship details 

                       below are as far as possible gross tons. When figures in  'tons'(t) 

                       with no qualification or 'registered tons' (rt) are provided, there 
                       is an element of doubt and often reflects a different sytem of 
                       measurement, e.g. with U.S.A. built ships.           
                       5. & 6: Year and  Place of Construction (completion).  These details are 
                       important for identifying  vessels with the same name.  Sometimes 
                       date of 'launch' rather than 'completion'  is provided.  In most cases 
                       it is in the same year but not always. This can lead to confusion 
                       over the identification of a vessel.

            Additional Details For Steam Auxiliaries:                     

                    S.S. - Steamship

                    ps - paddle steamers;    

                    scs - (single) screw steamers

                    1f - one funnel (2f - 2 funnels)

            Thus the details of :   
                - the 'Red Jacket' are given as: "w3s  2,305t 1854 Rockland, Maine";
                - the 'Cutty Sark' as "c3s 963gt 1869 Dumbarton"; 
                - the 'Pericles' as 'i3s 1598gt 1877 Aberdeen';
                - the 'S.S. Great Victoria' (ex-Jacquard) as "iscs 1f3s 2398gt 
                    1854 Nantes (acqd 1863 ren)".             


                us - under sail
                uw - underway (steamers)
                ut - under tow
               am -
at mooring or at anchor
                aq - at quay/alongside


               acqd -
               ren - renamed

                           "MARCO POLO"- From the Illustrated  London News 1853              


                A. THE INTERNET

                PICTURE AUSTRALIA  - provides access to the picture collections          
                of all  national and state libraries and museums, including,            
                the Australian War Memorial and National Archives of Australia.


                anmm - Australian National Maritime Museum, Sydney -

               awm - Australian War Memorial, Canberra -


                mhg - Museum fur Hamburgische Geschichte, Hamburg -


                mmm - Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool -


                naa - National Archives of Australia, Canberra -


                nla - National Library of Australia, Canberra -
                nlnz - Alexander Turnbull Library,                
                          National Library of New Zealand, Wellington -


                nmm - National Maritime Museum, Greenwich -


                pem - Peabody Essex Museum,, Salem, Mass. -

                sln - State Library of New South Wales, Sydney -


                slq - State Library of Queensland, Brisbane -

                slsa - State Library of South Australia, Adelaide -


                slt - State Library of Tasmania, Hobart -


                slv - State Library of Victoria, Melbourne -




                (a) Illustrated Newspaper Periodicals

                Illustrated London News (1842 - 1891)
                Illustrated Sydney News (1853 - 1889)
                Australian Sketcher (1873 - 1889)

                Vaughan Evans compiled indexes of illustrations (including ships) 
                 of Australian and New Zealand interest.for each of these publications
                These indexes are available on the website of the Australian      
                National Maritime Museum.. The index for the Illustrated London 
                News lists illustrations of over fifty sailing vessels from 1845 to 1881.

                (b) Books

                An oustanding book with colour plates of watercolours by Jack 
                Spurling of more than seventy well known sailing ships, including 
                many in the Australian and New Zealand trade, is "SAIL: The 
                Romance of the Clipper Ships".  The book is pictured by Jack
                Spurling, storied by Basil Lubbock, and edited by F.A. Hook.              
                It was published in three volumes in the first instance by the Blue 
                Peter Publishing Company, London from 1927 to 1936.  In 1972, 
                Grossett & Dunlap, New York, published a facsimile reprint of 
                the three volumes.  A composite volume "The Best of Sail" which            
                includes thirty-six  colour plates of Spurling's paintings was also  
                published by Grossett & Dunlap in 1977.

                Basil Lubbock's "The Colonial Clippers", "The Blackwall Frigates" 
                and "The Last of the Windjammers", Volumes I and II, published                
                respectively in 1921, 1924, 1927 and 1928, by Brown, Son &  
                Ferguson, Ltd., Glasgow,  and have been reprinted since, contain 
                photos as well as details of a large number of sailing vessels that 
                were well known in the Australia and New Zealand trade.  The 
                "Colonial Clippers" contains photos of more than eighty such  
                sailing ships.

                Frank C. Bowen's "The Golden Age of Sail - Indiamen. Packets and 
                Clipper Ships with Illustrations from Contemporary Engravings and 
                Paintings in the MacPherson Collection" published in 1925 by Halton 
                & Truscott Smith Ltd., London  and Minton, Balch & Company, New 
                York, contains black & white and some colour reproductions of  
                lithographs by T.G. Dutton and J.R. Isaac as well as of paintings in    
                the MacPherson Collection held by the National Maritime Museum, 
                Greenwich, in the United Kingdom.

                Another noteworthy source of ships' pictures is Sir Henry Brett's 
                "White Wings: Fifty Years of Sail in the New Zealand Trade, 1850 to  
                1900" (published in 1924)  and his subsequent volume "White Wings: 
                Founding of the Provinces and Old Time Shipping" (published 1928).   
                A composite volume, "White Wings: Immigrant Ships to New Zealand  
                1840-1902", edited by Cyril R. Bradwell,  was published by A.H. & 
                A.W. Reed Ltd., Wellington.1984

                The American clipper ship prints published by Currier & Ives of 
                "Red Jacket", "Flying Cloud",  "Lightning", and "Sovereign of the Seas",    
                which carried people to Australia in the Gold Rush in the 1850s, needs 
                mention.  The compilation "Clipper Ships - Currier & Ives Prints No. 3 -                             
                introduction by Felix Riesenberg" (published by The Studio Limited, 
                London and William Edward Rudge, New York , 1932) has colour 
                reproductions of  twenty one of  these prints.including of the four 

                clippers mentioned above.
                David R. MacGregor's "Merchant Sailing Ships1815-1850", "Merchant 
                Sailing Ships 1850-1875", "Fast Sailing Ships - Their Design and 
                Construction 1775-1875", and "British and American Clippers. A 
                Comparison of their Design, Construction and Performance in the 
                1850s" (published by Conway Maritime Press Ltd., London) are also a 
                fruitful source of pictures and information. 

                (c) Catalogues

                The printed catalogues of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, 
                are a central resource in finding pictures of vessels of Australian and 
                New Zealand interest, in particular, the "Concise Catalogue of Paintings 
                in the National Maritime Museum", and the Museum's  "General            
                Catalogue of Historic Photographs, Volume II, Merchant Sailing Ships". 
                Online, the Museum's catalogues of 'Historic Photographs' and 'Prints  
                and Drawings' are important sources. The latter with its many thousands 
                of items is an outstanding collection of  lithographs, water colours, 
                etchings and drawings of vessels before they could be recorded by

                The online catalogues of the Australian national and state libraries and
                museums, in particular, the State Library of Victoria with its Malcolm 
                Brodie shipping collection and Allan C. Green collection of photographs 
                of sailing  vessels, is a great resource.  The Australian National 
                Maritime Museum, the National Libraries of Australia and of New 
                Zealand and the other State Libraries also hold important collections of 
                sailing ship paintings, etchings and photographs.  By searching the
                name of a ship in Picture Australia, images of the ship where they exist
                in the collections of all these institutions can be seen on one screen.

               Other noteworthy catalogues of paintings which include vessels of 
               Australian and New Zealand interest are:
               -  "Marine Paintings and Drawings in the Peabody Museum" by M.V. and
                    Dorothy Brewington
                - "More Marine Paintings & Drawings in the Peabody Museum" by Phillip
                    Chadwick Foster Smith
                - "Marine Paintings and Drawings in Mystic Seaport Museum" by Dorothy
                    E.R. Brewington
                - "Illustrated Catalogue of Marine Paintings in the Merseyside Maritime
                    Museum Liverpool " by Anthony Tibbles


                                           ST. VINCENT - From the Illustrated London News, 1854  

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